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Waterway Management

  • Given the heavy bed/bank disturbance caused by deer it pays to consider permanent fencing of waterways.

  • Provide reticulated water supply for stock drinking. If you have not already done this make sure this task as your top priority. While costly to establish water supply, in the long term productivity of livestock will increase due to ready access to drinking water and less energy spent on walking to the nearest water way. Such a move will also reduce stock access to waterways which improve your environmental compliance substantially.

  • When fencing give regards to flooding and slope. Greater the slope wider the margin retired. For permanent fencing plant with suitable slow growing native shrubs to minimise weed proliferation within the riparian strip.

  • A riparian strip with sufficient vegetation including good grass cover is more effective in reducing phosphorus, sediment and faecal bacteria runoff than regularly grazed strips.

  • Use crossings to avoid direct access of stock. Install battery culverts (multiple small culverts) with provision for overtopping (referred to by engineers as secondary flow pathway) than installing fords.

  • When installing crossings, particularly culverts ensure unimpeded  fish passage. If water fall forms at the downstream end of the culvert, it is not installed properly.
  • If possible divert all tile and mole drains to detention pond(s) or constructed wetland. (Refer NIWA publication for further info- New Zealand Guidelines for Constructed Wetland Treatment of Tile Drainage).

  • If cultivating soil in areas with slope with receiving waterways, use contour ploughing and consider weather forecast before deciding to plough.